Checking Processor and Memory Utilization for Jobs on Quest
This page provides commands for checking processor (core) and RAM memory utilization for jobs that run on Quest.
Understanding the memory and CPU requirements of your jobs will help you to utilize Quest resources more efficiently. Below are some methods you can apply to measure a job's CPU and RAM usage.
How to check resource utilization for completed jobs?
Slurm provides a tool called seff to check the memory utilization and CPU efficiency for completed jobs. Note that for running and failed jobs, the efficiency numbers reported by seff are not reliable so please use this tool only for successfully completed jobs.
We are going to look at a finished job that was submitted using the script below:
#!/bin/bash #SBATCH --account=p12345 #SBATCH --job-name=lmp-cpu #SBATCH --ntasks=10 #SBATCH --ntasks-per-node=10 #SBATCH --mem-per-cpu=100M #SBATCH --time=01:02:00
module purge module load lammps/lammps-22Aug18 mpirun -n 10 lmp -in in.fcc
This job submission script requests 10 tasks in a node. The scheduler assigns one core to one task so 10 cores were assigned for this job. The script also requests 100 megabytes per core. As a result, 1000 megabytes were reserved for this job.
After the job is completed, we can examine the utilization report produced by the seff <jobid> command.
[abc123@quser24 ~]$ seff 549437 Job ID: 549437 Cluster: quest User/Group: abc123/abc123 State: COMPLETED (exit code 0) Nodes: 1 Cores per node: 10 CPU Utilized: 01:06:22 CPU Efficiency: 103.16% of 01:04:20 core-walltime Job Wall-clock time: 00:06:26 Memory Utilized: 287.50 MB Memory Efficiency: 28.75% of 1000.00 MB
CPU Efficiency is calculated as the ratio of the actual core time from all cores divided by the number of cores requested divided by the run time. Here, we see that the CPU Efficiency is 103% which means that the job utilized all 10 cores fully during the run time.
Memory Efficiency is calculated as the ratio of the high-water mark of memory used by all tasks divided by the memory requested for the job. The total memory request for this job was 1000 megabytes and only 287.5 megabytes were used. Thus the memory efficiency is calculated as 28.75%.
Profiling your processes for memory and CPU usage before production
The time command is provided with Quest's operating system. You can launch a program with /usr/bin/time in front of it so that the system will watch your program and provide statistics about the CPU and RAM usage.
To test your code, it is recommended that you start an interactive session reserving a compute node. Here is an example test for an MPI parallelized code (namely lmp):
[abc123@qnode4233 ~]$ /usr/bin/time -v mpirun -n 10 lmp -in in.fcc > lmp.out
The output of this command is as follows:
Command being timed: "mpirun -n 10 lmp -in in.fcc" User time (seconds): 3682.19 System time (seconds): 1.41 Percent of CPU this job got: 999% Elapsed (wall clock) time (h:mm:ss or m:ss): 6:25.64 Average shared text size (kbytes): 0 Average unshared data size (kbytes): 0 Average stack size (kbytes): 0 Average total size (kbytes): 0 Maximum resident set size (kbytes): 31050 Average resident set size (kbytes): 0 Major (requiring I/O) page faults: 51 Minor (reclaiming a frame) page faults: 408429 Voluntary context switches: 11770 Involuntary context switches: 2159 Swaps: 0 File system inputs: 0 File system outputs: 181592 Socket messages sent: 0 Socket messages received: 0 Signals delivered: 0 Page size (bytes): 4096 Exit status: 0
The Percent of CPU this job got line reports core utilization. A value around 100% means that the job run on 1 core. In this case, 999% means that the job used about 10 cores. The number reported for Maximum resident set size will inform you about how much RAM your task has used at most. Since the example program is using MPI parallelization with 10 tasks and one task of the program used maximum 31050 kilobytes of memory, we can estimate that the whole job needs a bit more than 310 megabytes.
The information gathered from this test will be helpful estimating the memory/cpu needs of similar jobs in the future. When submitting a job, a good practice is to request 10-15% more memory than the finding in your memory profiling as a safety factor.
Here is another profiling example for a program (pi_red) that is parallelized using OpenMP threads:
[abc123@qnode4233 ~]$ /usr/bin/time -v ./pi_red Command being timed: "./pi_red" User time (seconds): 22547.96 System time (seconds): 0.79 Percent of CPU this job got: 996% Elapsed (wall clock) time (h:mm:ss or m:ss): 37:42.85 Average shared text size (kbytes): 0 Average unshared data size (kbytes): 0 Average stack size (kbytes): 0 Average total size (kbytes): 0 Maximum resident set size (kbytes): 832 Average resident set size (kbytes): 0 Major (requiring I/O) page faults: 0 Minor (reclaiming a frame) page faults: 305 Voluntary context switches: 19 Involuntary context switches: 67224 Swaps: 0 File system inputs: 0 File system outputs: 0 Socket messages sent: 0 Socket messages received: 0 Signals delivered: 0 Page size (bytes): 4096 Exit status: 0
The program used 832 kilobytes of memory and about 10 CPU cores with its threads. Unlike MPI tasks, threads share a common memory space, thus the whole job used 832 kilobytes in this case.
How to check resource utilization for running jobs?
While your job is running, you can examine the instantaneous memory and CPU utilization from the compute node(s) directly. You can find out which node(s) is (are) working on your job by using squeue -j <jobID> command. Let's look at the MPI parallelized lmp program which is submitted as a batch job:
[abc123@quser21 ~]$ squeue -j 549437 JOBID PARTITION NAME USER ST TIME NODES NODELIST(REASON) 549437 short lmp-cpu abc123 R 2:34 1 qnode4233
Once you have identified the name of the node that your job is running on, you can connect to this node directly:
[abc123@quser21 ~]$ ssh qnode4233 [abc123@qnode4233 ~]$
You will see your command prompt name changes from the login node (quser21 in this example) to the compute node (qnode4233 in this case). There are two useful commands that will inform you about the resource utilization of your program. The first one is ps which gives a snapshot of the running processes on the node.
[abc123@qnode4233 ~]$ ps -u$USER -o %cpu,rss,args
In the command above, we request ps to report %cpu and resident set size (rss) utilized for the running processes (args). The output is obtained as follows:
%CPU RSS COMMAND 0.0 1576 /bin/bash /var/spool/slurmd/job549437/slurm_script 0.4 5504 mpirun -n 10 lmp -in in.fcc 100 30248 lmp -in in.fcc 100 28384 lmp -in in.fcc 100 28524 lmp -in in.fcc 100 28632 lmp -in in.fcc 100 28512 lmp -in in.fcc 100 28264 lmp -in in.fcc 100 28064 lmp -in in.fcc 100 28084 lmp -in in.fcc 100 28140 lmp -in in.fcc 100 28668 lmp -in in.fcc 0.0 2124 sshd: abc123@pts/10 0.1 2140 -bash 0.0 1572 ps -uabc123 -o %cpu,rss,argsK
The output shows 10 lmp tasks each using 100% of a CPU core and about 30 megabytes (default units for rss in ps command is kilobytes). In total, this job has been using 10 CPU cores and around 300 megabytes of memory when ps command was issued.
A similar result can be obtained from top (i.e. short for table of processes) command which shows live data instead of a snapshot.
[abc123@qnode4233 ~]$ top -u$USER
The command will start the live task manager. Memory and CPU usages can be tracked from RES and %CPU columns respectively. We see 10 lmp tasks, each consuming around 30000 kilobytes of memory and 99.9% of one CPU. Once you have gathered the necessary information, press q to quit the task manager.
top - 01:07:31 up 168 days, 18:08, 1 user, load average: 7.15, 2.42, 1.84 Threads: 1332 total, 11 running, 1321 sleeping, 0 stopped, 0 zombie %Cpu(s): 50.3 us, 0.2 sy, 0.0 ni, 49.4 id, 0.0 wa, 0.0 hi, 0.0 si, 0.0 st KiB Mem : 13183529+total, 11912448+free, 6916132 used, 5794680 buff/cache KiB Swap: 0 total, 0 free, 0 used. 12324249+avail Mem PID USER PR NI VIRT RES SHR S %CPU %MEM TIME+ COMMAND 16234 abc123 20 0 613580 28668 11948 R 99.9 0.0 1:15.64 lmp 16223 abc123 20 0 629792 30700 12108 R 99.9 0.0 1:15.64 lmp 16225 abc123 20 0 613220 28796 12276 R 99.9 0.0 1:15.67 lmp 16229 abc123 20 0 612824 28560 12260 R 99.9 0.0 1:15.65 lmp 16230 abc123 20 0 612824 28332 12232 R 99.9 0.0 1:15.66 lmp 16232 abc123 20 0 612812 28116 11872 R 99.9 0.0 1:15.66 lmp 16233 abc123 20 0 612804 28152 11920 R 99.9 0.0 1:15.66 lmp 16226 abc123 20 0 612836 28536 12312 R 99.7 0.0 1:15.66 lmp 16228 abc123 20 0 613184 28636 11988 R 99.7 0.0 1:15.66 lmp 16231 abc123 20 0 612416 28088 11968 R 99.7 0.0 1:15.63 lmp
Now, let's examine what we see for another job running the pi_red program. Note that this program is using threading for parallelization. The ps reports 999% CPU (translates to utilizing 10 cores) and 620 kilobytes of memory (RSS).
[abc123@qnode4233 ~]$ ps -u$USER -o %cpu,rss,args %CPU RSS COMMAND 0.0 1468 /bin/bash /var/spool/slurmd/job549441/slurm_script 999 620 ./pi_red 0.0 2120 sshd: abc123@pts/0 0.0 2192 -bash 0.0 1572 ps -uabc123 -o %cpu,rss,args
The same information could be obtained from RES and %CPU columns of top command for pi_red program.
[abc123@qnode4233 ~]$ top -u$USER top - 15:49:20 up 123 days, 8:50, 1 user, load average: 9.30, 4.14, 1.61 Tasks: 279 total, 2 running, 277 sleeping, 0 stopped, 0 zombie %Cpu(s): 50.0 us, 0.0 sy, 0.0 ni, 49.9 id, 0.0 wa, 0.0 hi, 0.0 si, 0.0 st KiB Mem : 13183529+total, 10491147+free, 6206644 used, 20717172 buff/cache KiB Swap: 0 total, 0 free, 0 used. 12455683+avail Mem PID USER PR NI VIRT RES SHR S %CPU %MEM TIME+ COMMAND 2068 abc123 20 0 29220 620 516 R 1000 0.0 27:01.04 pi_red 2357 abc123 20 0 157836 2376 1560 R 0.7 0.0 0:00.07 top 1876 abc123 20 0 113120 1468 1212 S 0.0 0.0 0:00.00 slurm_script 2082 abc123 20 0 130612 2120 936 S 0.0 0.0 0:00.00 sshd 2083 abc123 20 0 115516 2192 1672 S 0.0 0.0 0:00.02 bash
- Managing Jobs on Quest
- Examples of Jobs on Quest
- Troubleshooting Jobs on Quest
- Everything You Need to Know about Using Slurm on Quest